Branches of science

 Aerodynamics:  the study of the motion of gas on objects and the forces created

Anatomy: the study of the structure and organization of living things
Anthropology: the study of human cultures both past and present
Archaeology: the study of the material remains of cultures
Astronomy: the study of celestial objects in the universe
Astrophysics: the study of the physics of the universe
Bacteriology: the study of bacteria in relation to disease
Biochemistry: the study of the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occurring in organisms
Biophysics: the application of theories and methods of the physical sciences to questions of biology
Biology: the science that studies living organisms
Botany: the scientific study of plant life
Chemical Engineering: the application of science, mathematics, and economics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms
Chemistry: the science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself
Climatology: the study of climates and investigations of its phenomena and causes
Computer Science: the systematic study of computing systems and computation
Ecology: the study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment
Electronics: science and technology of electronic phenomena
Engineering: the practical application of science to commerce or industry
Entomology: the study of insects
Environmental Science: the science of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment
Forestry: the science of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources
Genetics: the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms
Geology: the science of the Earth, its structure, and history
Marine Biology: the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems
Mathematics: a science dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement
Medicine: the science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease
Meteorology: study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting
Microbiology: the study of microorganisms, including viruses, prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes
Mineralogy: the study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals
Molecular Biology: the study of biology at a molecular level
Nuclear Physics: the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom
Neurology: the branch of medicine dealing with the nervous system and its disorders
Oceanography: study of the earth’s oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes
Organic Chemistry: the branch of chemistry dedicated to the study of the structures, synthesis, and reactions of carbon-containing compounds
Ornithology: the study of birds
Paleontology: the study of life-forms existing in former geological time periods
Petrology: the geological and chemical study of rocks
Physics: the study of the behavior and properties of matter
Physiology: the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms
Radiology: the branch of medicine dealing with the applications of radiant energy, including x-rays and radioisotopes
Seismology: the study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth
Taxonomy: the science of classification of animals and plants
Thermodynamics: the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes
Zoology: the study of animals

General Science



The Vitamins are necessary auxiliaries in metabolism. They combine with specific proteins, as parts of various oxidative enzyme systems which are concerned with the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat in the body. Thus, they are intimately involved in the mechanism which releases energy, carbon dioxide and water as the end products of metabolism.
Vitamins can be broadly divided into Fat Soluble and Water Soluble Vitamins. Vitamins A D E and K are fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins B ( B1 B2 B6 B12 ) and C are water-soluble.

Vitamin – A
Year 1913
Main Metabolic Function Essential for normal growth and development.
For normal function of epithelical cells and normal development of teeth and bones.
Prevents Night blindness.
Deficiency – Effects Retarded growth.
Reduced resistance to infection.
Abnormal function of gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts due to altered epithelial membranes.
Interferes with production of “night purple”.
Available Milk, Egg yolk, Ghee, Butter, Carrots, Tomatoes, Leafy and Yellow vegetables, Cod liver oil and Fresh fruits.
Nature Fat-Soluble
Year 1936
Main Metabolic Function An important aid in carbohydrate metabolism.
Needed for Proper functioning of the digestive tract and nervous system.
Loss of muscle.
Deficiency – Effects Loss of appetite.
Impaired digestion of starches and sugars.
Various nervous disorder coordination.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble
Vitamin – B2
Year 1935
Main Metabolic Function Needed in formation of certain enzymes and in cellular oxidation.
Prevents inflammation of oral mucous membranes and the tongue.
Deficiency – Effects Impaired growth, lassitude and weakness.
Causes cheillosis or glossittis.
May result in Photophobia and cataracts.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble
Vitamin – B6
Year 1934
Main Metabolic Function Acts as do other B vitamins.
To break down protein, carbohydrate and fat.
Acts as a catalyst in the formation of niacin from tryptophan.
Deficiency – Effects Increased irritability, convulsions and peripheral neuritis.
Anorexia, nausea and vomiting.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble
Vitamin – B12
Year 1948
Main Metabolic Function Essential for development of red blood cells.
Required for maintenance of skin, nerve tissues, bone and muscles.
Deficiency – Effects Results in pernicious anaemia.
Weakness, fatigue, sore and cracked lips.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble
Vitamin – C
Year 1919
Ascorbic Acid
Main Metabolic Function Needed for form the cementing substance, collagen, in various tissues (skin, dentine, cartilage and bone matrix).
Assists in woundhealing and bone fractures.
Deficiency – Effects Lowered resistance to infections.
Susceptibility to dental cavities, pyotthea and bleeding gums.
Delayed wound healing.
Specific treatment for Scurvy.
Available Fresh vegetables, Lemon, Orange, Tomatoes, Cabbage , Turnip and Lettuce (Beetroot).
Nature Water-Soluble
Year 1925
Main Metabolic Function Requlates absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestinal tract.
Affords antiachitic activity.
Deficiency – Effects Interferes with utilisation of calcium and phosphorus in bone and teeth formation.
Development of bone disease, rickets and caries.
Available Butter, Milk, Ghee, Cod liver oil, Yolk of Eggs and also in Sunrays.
Nature Fat-Soluble
Vitamin – E
Year 1936
Main Metabolic Function Protects tissues, cell membranes and Vitamin A against peroxidation.
Helps strengthen red blood cells.
Deficiency – Effects Decreased red blood cell resistance to rupture.
Available Germinating Wheat.
Nature Fat-Soluble
Vitamin – K
Year 1935
Main Metabolic Function Essential for formation of normal amounts of prothrombin and blood coagulation.
Deficiency – Effects diminished blood clotting time.
Increased incidence of hemorrhages.
Available Fish, Wheat and Oats.
Nature Fat-Soluble

Related Web Terms

Vitamins Vitamin – A Vitamin – B6 Vitamin – B1 Metabolic Function Deficiency – Effects Vitamin – B2 Vitamin – K Vitamin – E Vitamin – D Vitamin – C Vitamin – B12 Vitamin Nature carbohydrates oxidative enzyme systems Proteins

General Science Gk

Science General Knowledge-
What is dry ice & what are its uses?

Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide. It is also called as ” Cardice ” or as ” card ice “.
At temperatures below −56.4 °C (−69.5 °F) and at below 5.13 atm pressure (the triple point ), carbon dioxide gas changes from a solid to a gas with not converting into liquid, through a process called sublimation.

Uses of Dry Ice-

*. Dry ice is used primarily as a cooling agent. It is useful for preserving frozen foods, ice cream, etc., where mechanical cooling is unavailable.
*. To remove floor tiles.
*. To remove skin imperfections.
*. In the poultry industry.
*. To lengthen the life of wet ice.
*. To make fog in the entertainment industry.
*. To shrink metal.
*. To retard chemical catalysts.
*. As a mosquito attractant for traps.
*. By airline caterers to keep food chilled.
*. By blood banks for shipping the blood.

General Science Gk MCQ test
General Science Quiz – GK Multiple Choice Questions with Answers
Basic General Knowledge Quiz – GK Multiple Choice

1. Kilowatt hour (kWh) represents the unit of
(a) power
(b) impulse
(c) momentum
(d) none of these
Ans. (d)

2. A body moves through a distance of 3 m in the following different ways.
In which case is the maximum work done?
(a) When pushed over an inclined plane.
(b) When lifted vertically upward.
(c) When pushed over smooth rollers.
(d) When pushed on a plane horizontal surface.
Ans. (b)

3. A wound watch spring has _____ energy.
(a) mechanical
(b) kinetic
(c) potential
(d) kinetic and potential
Ans. (c)

4. When the time taken to complete a given amount of work increases, then,
(a) power increases
(b) power decreases
(c) energy increases
(d) energy decreases
Ans. (b)

5. The moon revolves around the earth because the earth exerts a radial force
on the moon. Does this perform work on the moon?
(a) No
(b) Yes, sometimes
(c) Yes, always
(d) Cannot be decided
Ans. (a)

6. The K.E. of a body is increased most by doubling its
(a) mass
(b) weight
(b) speed
(d) density
Ans. (c)

7. A lifts a doll from the floor and places it on a table. If the weight of the
doll is known, what else does one need to know in order to calculate the
work A has done on the doll?
(a) The time required
(b) Height of the table
(c) Mass of the ball
(d) Cost of the doll or the table
Ans. (b)

8. The unit of power is
(a) watt per second
(b) jou1e
(c) kilo joule
(d) watt
Ans. (d)

9. A raised hammer posses
(a) K.E. only
(b) gravitational P.E.
(c) electrical energy
(d) sound energy
Ans. (b)

10. With the increase in temperature, the density of a substance, in general,
(a) increases
(b) decreases
(c) first increase then decreases
(d) first decrease then increases
Ans. (b)

11. The normal temperature of the human body is
(a) 37°C
(b) 98°C
(c) 368K
(d) none of these
Ans. (a)

12. A circular disc of copper has a symmetrical hole at its centre. The disc is
uniformly heated. The diameter of the hole will
(a) increase
(b) decrease
(c) remain the same
(d) become indeterminate
Ans. (a)

13. When water is heated from 0°C, its volume
(a) increases
(b) decreases till 4°C
(c) remains the same
(d) first increases then decreases
Ans. (b)

14. The most commonly used thermometric substance is
(a) water
(b) alcohol
(c) mercury
(d) none of these
Ans. (c)

15. In summer, the clocks
(a) become slow
(b) become fast
(c) gives correct time
(d) lose time
Ans. (a)

16. Glaciers always melt at the __________ first.
(a) top surface
(b) sides
(c) bottom
(d) middle surface
Ans. (c)

17. When air is saturated, it cannot hold
(a) more water Vapour
(b) more air
(c) more carbon dioxide
(d) more oxygen
Ans. (a)

18. At dew point. RH is
(a) 10%
(b) 20%
(c) 50%
(d) 100%
Ans. (d)

19. Burning of a meteorite in the earth’s atmosphere is an example of change of
(a) heat energy into kinetic energy
(b) kinetic energy into heat energy
(c) kinetic energy into potential energy
(d) potential energy into heat energy
Ans. (b)

20. Soda bottles are made of thick glass so that they can withstand the
(a) pressure in summer
(b) temperature in summer
(c) decrease in viscosity
(d) increase in potential energy
Ans. (a)