India- भारत का राष्ट्रपति

हम यहाँ पर भारत के राष्ट्रपति के बारे जानकारी हासिल करेंगे |
1 . यह देश का प्रथम नागरिक होता है |
2 . इसकी संवेधानिक स्थिति ब्रिटेन की महारानी के समान होती है |
3 .राष्ट्रपति  के बारे में संविधान के अनुच्छेद 52 -62 में प्रावधान किया गया है |
4 . योग्यता :
-भारत का नागरिक होना चाहिए |
– 35 वर्ष की आयु पूरी कर चुका हो |
– किसी लाभकारी पद पर आसीन नहीं होना चाहिए |
– किसी निर्वाचन क्षेत्र में उसका नाम हो और लोकसभा सदस्य बनाने की योग्यता रखता हो |
– कम से कम 50 प्रस्तावक हो और 50 निर्वाचकों द्वारा अनुमोदन किया जाना चाहिए |
– जमानत राशी 15000 रूपये ( यदि किसी उम्मीदवार को 1 /6 भाग मत प्राप्त न हो तो जमानत जब्त कर ली जताई है |)
5. राष्ट्रपति के चुनाव में लोकसभा, राज्य सभा और विधान सभाओं के निर्वाचित सदस्य भाग लेते है |
6 . चुनाव प्रचार अवधि २ सप्ताह होती है |
7 . चुनाव प्रक्रिया :
– इसका चुनाव एकल संक्रमणिय मत प्रणाली के अधर पर होता है |
– इसमें जितने उम्मेदवार कहदे होते है उनको वरीयता के अधर पर वोट दिया जाता है |
– जो उम्मीदवार 50 % से अधिक मतों का कोटा प्राप्त कर लेता है उसे निर्वाचित घोषित कर दिया जाता है |
– यदि किसी भी उम्मीदवार को 50 % से कम वोट मिलते है तो दूसरी वरीयता के आधार पर निर्वाचन किया जाता है |
– 1969 में व्. व्. गिरी को दूसरी वरीयता के अधर पर निर्वाचित किया गया |
8 . निर्वाचन सम्बंधित विवाद सर्वोच्च न्यायालय हल करता है |
9 . राष्ट्रपति  को सपथ सर्वोच्च न्यायालय का मिख्या न्यायाधीश दिलाता है |
10 . निवास स्थान: दिल्ली की रायसीना पहाड़ी पर स्थित राष्ट्रपति  भवन जिसका नक्शा 1911 में एड़विन लुटविन  द्वारा बनाया गया  इसे पहले वायसरिगल लाज कहा जाता था जिसमे रहने वाले प्रथम व्यक्ति लार्ड इरविन थे |
11 . वेतन : 100000 रूपये मासिक
12 . पेंसन : 50 ,000 रूपये मासिक
13 . राष्ट्रपति  उप-राष्ट्रपति  को अपना त्याग पत्र सोंपता है |
14 . कार्यकाल : राष्ट्रपति  का कार्यकाल 5 वर्ष होता है |
15 . यद्यपि कोई व्यक्ति कितनी ही बार राष्ट्रपति  पद ग्रहण कर सकता है पर परंपरा के अनुसार कोई व्यक्ति दो बार  से अधिक राष्ट्रपति  नहीं बन सकता |

World Histor, Indian History, Indian Economy, Indian Polity, General Science, Geography of India, Books and Authors, Awards and Honours, World : Miscellaneous, India : Miscellaneous, General Knowledge Quiz,Current GK, currentgk, General Knowledges, Current Affairs, GENERAL KNOWLEDGE QUIZ,CURRENT AFFAIRS,GENERAL KNOWLEDGE, PERSONALITY,WHO’S WHO,INDIA GK,WORDS AND VOCABULARY,BUSINESS GK,SCIENCE GK, ENVIRONMENT GK, AMAZING FACTS,BANK PO AND CLERICAL EXAM QUESTIONS,INDIA’S ECONOMY,BRAIN TEASERS,INDUSTRY NEWS-INDIA,SPORTS GK,COMPETITIVE EXAM QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS,HISTORY,GEOGRAPHY,INDIAN CONSTITUTION AND 5 YEAR PLAN,GK FOR MBA ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS, MAT,SNAP 2010,INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES, GROUP DISCUSSION, RAILWAY RECRUITMENTS, UPSC, IAS, FREE QUIZZES2011,Current GK, GK Quiz,india current gk,Latest GK, Parliament of India, General Knowledge Current,Current GK, current general knowledge, currentgk, General Knowledge Today ,Current Affairs, Latest GK,

Economy Current Affairs Quiz/Questions-Answers August 2011, August 22-August 28

Taking the Economy Current Affairs Quiz will test as well as enhance your knowledge on economy related issues. Moreover the Economy Current Affairs Quiz for August 2011 will help you in the preparation for different competitive examination like that of Bank PO, MBA, NABARD, RBI, Railway, SSC, Civil Services Exam etc.
1. 1.    A study titled Being five star in productivity — road map for excellence in Indian banking was released FICCI-IBA-BCG on 22 August 2011, the eve of IBA-FICCI annual banking conference. Which of the facts related to the report stated below are not true?
   2.    India’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth will make the Indian banking industry third largest in the world by 2025.
   3.    The report highlighted that banks have to strive for excellence on three dimensions: branch sales and service, new channels and lean operations
   4.    Indian banks deploy 62 per cent of staff in customer facing roles as against the benchmark of 82 per cent observed by BCG globally.
   5.    Indian banks, the report mentioned were to be doing well overall with industry cost-income ratio below 50 per cent.
   a.    1 & 3
   b.    Only 3
   c.    Only 2
   d.    3 & 4
Answer: (c)

2.  According to the data released by the Life Insurance Council on 22 August 2011, the life insurance industry witnessed a decline of what percent in its total premium collections for the quarter ended June 2011?
a.    3.8%
b.    4.2%
c.    6.1%
d.    5%
Answer:  (d)

3.  According to a study Private Cloud Landscape in India released by EMC Corporation and Zinnov Management Consulting, a management consulting firm in July 2011, what will be the value of the cloud market in India by 2015?
a.    $ 4.5 billion
b.    $6 billion
c.    $ 5.6 billion
d.    $ 9 billion
Answer: (a)

4.  Which of the following bodies estimated IT companies would continue to grow globally at 16-18 per cent in 2011-12 despite the economic crisis in the U.S. and European markets?
a.    FICCI
b.    NASSCOM
c.    CII
d.    ASOCHAM
Answer: (b)


5.    
Food inflation rose to what percent for the week ended August 13 on the back of dearer onions, potatoes, fruits and protein-based items?
a.    9%
b.    9.3%
c.    9.80%
d.    10%
Answer: (c)

 
 
Sports Current Affairs Quiz have been drafted to test your knowledge about the recent sports events. Sports Current Affairs Quiz for August 2011 will help you increase your knowledge of the different sports events which are organised around the world. Taking the Sports current affairs Quiz, you will enhance your knowledge of sports and crack questions in the sports section of all competitive exams.
1.    Who won the ATP’s Cincinnati Masters title for the second time on 21 August 2011 after defeating World No. 1 Novak Djokovic 6-4, 3-0?
a.    Roger Federer
b.    Andy Murray
c.    Rafael Nadal
d.    Robin Soderling
Answer: (b)

2.     Name the Indian tennis dup who won the doubles title at the ATP’s Cincinnati Masters.
a.    Leander Paes and Mahesh Bhupathi
b.    Leander Paes and Somdev Devvarman
c.    Rohan Bopanna and Somdev Devvarman
d.    Mahesh Bhupathi and Rohan Bopanna
Answer: (a)

3.     Which Sri Lankan bowler became the first bowler to take three one-day international hat tricks as Sri Lanka registered a four-wicket consolation win against Australia in the fifth one-day international on 22 August 2011?
a.    Lasith Malinga
b.    Kumar Sangakkara
c.    Upul Tharanga
d.    Ajantha Mendis
Answer: (a)

4.     Which of the following Veteran Indian footballers who made his made his debut as a substitute in the 1995 Nehru Cup in Calcutta announced his retirement from international soccer on 24 August 2011?
a.    Basudeb Mondal
b.    Rennedy Singh
c.    Baichung Bhutia
d.    IM Vijayan
Answer: (c)

5.     Name the founder member of the Nehru Hockey Society who died on 23 August 2011.
a.    Shiv Kumar Verma
b.    Kukoo Walia
c.    Brig HJS Chimni
d.    Amrit Bose
Answer: (a)

 
 
Quizzes on the Current Affairs section are designed to cover the wide range of national issues, international events, and other information from different segments which are of general human interest. Taking the Current Affairs Quiz for August 2011  will update you on the latest incidents that the world is talking about. The quizzes on Current Affairs will equip you to take all competitive examinations as well.
1.  Which one of the following countries offered additional 10000 seats for Haj 2011 to India?
a) Saudi Arabia
b) Libya
c) Yemen
d) Iran
Answer: (a) Saudi Arabia

2.  
North Korea agreed to start international talks on denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. This was agreed during the visit of North Korean leader Kim Jong Ii to__.
a) Russia
b) China
c) UK
d) South Korea
Answer:  (a) Russia

3.    India, on 24 August 2011 signed (Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement) with which one of the following countries?
a) Georgia
b) Sri Lanka
c) Pakistan
d) UK
Answer: (a) Georgia
 

4. 
Study published by market research firm Gartner projected worldwide business process outsourcing (BPO) market to grow by what percent in the Asia-Pacific during the year 2011?
a.    17.9%
b.    15%
c.    11.12%
d.    6.3%
Answer: (a)

5.  Name the Indian photographer who was declared the ‘Grand Prix’ winner among 60,000 entries in the 33 year old Nikon Photo Contest International.
a.    Raghubir Singh
b.    Vikram Bawa
c.    Ayesha Soni
d.    Debarshi Duttagupta
AnsWer: (d)

 
Quizzes on the India Current Affairs section are designed to cover the wide range of national issues and other informations related to India from different segments which are of general human interest. Taking the India Current Affairs Quiz for August 2011 will update you on the latest incidents that occured in India. The quizzes on India Current Affairs will equip you to take all competitive examinations as well.
1.  1.    Noted historian and indologist RS Sharma died on 20 August 2011. Which of the facts related to him that is stated below is not true?
    2.    He was particularly known for his trenchant observations on institutions in ancient Indian society and his report on the Bihar-Bengal boundary dispute.
    3.    He was the founding chairman of the Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) in 1970.
    4.     He also served as President of the Indian History Congress in 1975
    5.    He was a recipient of the prestigious Jawaharlal Nehru Award in 1989 and was earlier awarded the Campbell Memorial Gold Medal by the Bombay Asiatic Society in 1987.
    a.    2 & 3
    b.    Only 1
    c.    Only 4
    d.    Only 2
Answer: (d)

2.  This veteran trade unionist and Communist Party of India-Marxist Politburo member who served the trade union movement as a Secretary of the AITUC in the 1960s and then as one of the key leaders of the CITU of which he became the General Secretary from 1990 to 1999 and then its President till 2010 died on 20 August 2011. Identify him.
a.    Madhukar Kashinath Pandhe
b.    K Varadarajan
c.    Mohd.Amin
d.    Manik Sarkar
Answer: (a)

3.  Which Former Indian No 2 snooker player who was India No.2 in snooker for three years from 1980 passed away on 20 August 2011.
a.    Ashok Shandilya
b.    Geet Sethi
c.    Michael Ferreira
d.    Sayed Habib
Answer: (d)

4.   In which one of the following states the Centre has launched an ambitious programme called Himayat?
a) Jammu and Kashmir
b) Haryana
c) Himachal Pradesh
d) Punjab
Answer:  (a) Jammu and Kashmir

5.   Which one of the following state governments sanctioned 95 thousand 599 posts of teachers?
a)  Madhya Pradesh
b) Haryana
c) Bihar
d) Punjab
Answer:  (a) Madhya Pradesh

6.   Jharkhand government on 23 August 2011 approved a draft of Right to Service Act 2011.  What is the capital of Jharkhand?
a) Ranchi
b) Patna
c) Bhagalpur
d) Dhanbad
Answer: (a) Ranchi

 
 
Science Current Affairs Quiz test the participant’s knowledge on latest discoveries, technological advancements made and in the process further enhances an individual’s knowledge base. The quizzes also cover the Environment-Ecology segment. Number of questions is asked from this segment in the competitive exams. Current Affairs Science quiz for August 2011  will help you in the preparation for NDA, CDS, Bank PO, MBA, NABARD, RBI, Railway, SSC, Civil Services and other Exams.
1.     The Scientists found the origin of El Tor in the Bay of Bengal. Consider the following statements on El Tor.
i)    El Tor is a highly virulent and deadly form of cholera strain.
ii)     It was first discovered in Bangladesh in 2006.
Choose the right option:
a)    Both i and ii are correct.
b)    Only i is correct.
c)    Only ii is correct.
d)    Neither i nor ii is correct.
Answer:  (a) Both i and ii are correct.

2.   Scientists discovered a cheap and effective way to prevent transmission of dengue fever. They infected mosquitoes with bacterium that blocks development of the dengue virus. Dengue fever is also known as___.
a) Breakbone Fever
b) Yellow Fever
c) Pyrexia
d) Hyperthermia
Answer:  (a) Breakbone Fever

3.   A group of researchers estimated that __ million species exist on Earth.
a) 8.7
b) 8.6
c) 8.3
d) 8.2
Answer:  (a) 8.7

4.   China Completed a Comprehensive Satellite Study of Brahmaputra and Indus Rivers. The study shows that Indus River is ____ long.
a) 3600 km
b) 3700 km
c) 3800
d) 3900
Answer: (a) 3600 km

5.   The Australian and British Geologists found evidence of the oldest known fossils of life on Earth. The sulfur-based microbes they discovered are ___billion years old.
a) 3.4
b) 2.4
c) 2.2
d) 1.2
Answer: (a) 3.4

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate Current Affairs Quiz/Questions-Answers August 2011, August 22-August 28

Taking the Corporate Current Affairs Quiz will test as well as enhance your knowledge of major corporate events. The corporate quiz for August 2011 will make you better prepared to face competitive examinations like that of Bank PO, NABARD, RBI, LIC, Civil Services, MBA etc.
1.    Which luxury car maker launched a new version of its sports utility vehicle Q5, priced at Rs 35.13 lakh on 23 August 2011?
a.    Audi India
b.    Opel
c.    Porsche
d.    Mercedes-Benz
Answer: (a)

2.     Which Indian auto-maker Tata Motors launched the new version of its premium hatchback, the Vista on 23 August 2011?
a.    Mahindra & Mahindra
b.    Tata Motors
c.    Maruti
d.    Bajaj Auto
Answer: (b)

3.     Silicon Valley legend Steve Jobs resigned as chief executive of Apple Inc on 24 August 2011. In which year was Apple founded?
a.    1970
b.    1973
c.    1975
d.    1976
Answer: (d)


4.    
Which pharmaceutical company entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Universal Medicare’s marketing and distribution business in India?
a.    Dr Reddy’s
b.    Aventis Pharma
c.    Cipla
d.    Ranbaxy
Answer: (b)

5.    
This provider of information technology consulting, and business process outsourcing services, was selected by the U.K. Financial Services Authority (FSA) to be a key supplier of solutions as part of its Strategic Outsourcing Framework Agreement (SOFA). Identify the company.
a.    Cognizant
b.    Infosys
c.    IBM
d.    Tech Mahindra
Answer: (a)

Current GK Questions and Answers Nov. 2011

1. Which Public Sector Giants of India have recently launched the “Harit-Moksha”, a unique CSR initiative for bringing in energy efficiency in the cremation sector?
– ONGC

2. Lt. Gen Palvinder Singh Bhalla was recently appointed the head of which organization?
-NCC

3. If a bank launched a “CASA campaign” , which would be the most probable objective of such campaign?
-To bring in more new customers

4. Who heads the National Integration Council in India?
– Prime Minister

5. 14th September, 1949 Constitution-makers of the country decided to accord the status of Official Language of Union .
– Hindi

6. “Prime Minister’s 15 Point Programme” in India is related to which segments of society?
– Minorities

7. The Integrated Action Plan (IAP) is aimed at bridging the development deficit in the extremely backward areas that are affected by ______.
– Left Wing Extremism

8. ” Maulana Azad National Fellowship scheme” is available in India for the students of?
– 5 Notified Minorities

9. Where are the headquarters of Biodiversity International?
– Rome

10. The IVFRT project is related to which among the following?
– Immigration (Immigration, Visa and Foreigners Registration & Tracking)

11. “Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan” covers the students from which age groups?
– 14-18 Years

12. In which year, the restructured Twenty Point Programme (TPP) became effective?
– 2007

13. The “Perform-Achieve-Trade” (PAT) Scheme has been launched for which sectors in India?
– Energy

14. Recently, India has proposed a special $ 10 Billion Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) fund for which among the following organizations?
– BRICS

15. Which is the fifth generation fighter in being developed by India and Russia?
– Sukhoi/HAL

Current General Knowledge: September 2011

ABBREVIATIONS
PAK-FA: Prospective Airborne Complex of Frontline Aviation.

AWARDS
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Awards
Eleven scientists have been selected for the prestigious Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, 2011. First given in 1958, the country’s highest award in science is named after the founder director of CSIR, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar. It is given to a scientist up to 45 years of age and carries a prize of Rs 5 lakh.

The winners include Amit Prakash Sharma of International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi and Rajan Sankaranarayanan of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad for the biological sciences category. In the chemical sciences category, Balasubramanian Sundaram of Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Banglore and Garikapati N have won the award.

The award for earth, atmosphere, ocean and planetary sciences category went to Shankar Doraiswamy of National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. In the engineering sciences category, Sirshendu De of IIT, Kharagpur and Upadrasta Ramamurty of Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Banglore, were given the award. Mahan Maharaj of Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Howrah and Palash Sarkar of Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata were picked for the award in mathematical sciences category.

In the medical sciences category, Kithiganahalli N Balaji of IISc, Banglore, was nominated while the award for physical sciences category went to Shiraz Minwalla of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai.

Jnanpith Award, 2009 & 2010
Eminent Hindi authors Srilal Shukla and Amar Kant have been chosen for Jnanpith award 2009. Renowned Kannada litterateur Chandrasekhar Kambar has won it for the year 2010.

For most readers in Hindi, Srilal Shukla’s name is synonymous with Raag Darbari, the novel that made reading Hindi books fashionable. The novel was translated into English by Gillian Wright, to introduce English readers to the hard-hitting satire of the Hindi hinterland.

A former IPS officer later inducted into IAS, Srilal Shukla (born 1925) authored about 25 books, important among which are Makaan, Sooni Ghaati Ka Sooraj, Pehla Padaav, Ahyatvas and Bisrampur Ka Sant. He also wrote a detective novel titled Aadmi Ka Zahar, which was serialised in the weekly magazine Hindustan. He has already been conferred with the Sahitya Akademi Award, Vyas Samman and Padma Shree (2008).

Amar Kant, who shares his year of birth with Shukla, is the author of Inhin Hashiyon Se, that earned him Sahitya Akademi Award (2007). At one time, fighting penury, Kant was willing to sell his Akademi Award. His short stories like Hatyare, Dopahar Ka Bhojan and Diptee Collector were part of syllabi in several Indian universities. Kant also authored Sukha Patta, Kale Ujale, Beech Ki Deewar and Desh Ke Log.

Kambar, who has won the Jnanpith for the year 2010, is a novelist and playwright. His noted works include Takararinavaru, Saavirada Neralu, Chakori (poetry collection) and Harakeya Kuri (plays). He is also a recipient of Sangeet Natak Akademi and Sahitya Akademi awards.

DEFENCE
Stealth fighter PAK-FA
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited expects an indigenous fight-generation stealth fighter aircraft to be inducted into the Indian Air Force (IAF) in about six years. The aircraft, called PAK-FA, is being developed with Russia.

Russian aircraft manufacturer Sukhoi has unveiled PAK-FA, also dubbed as the T-50, which will be the base variant for developing a version that specifically caters to Indian requirements.

PAK-FA is a Russian acronym for Prospective Airborne Complex of Frontline Aviation and its designers have claimed that it is comparable to the F-22 Raptor, US Air Force’s latest fighter.

A joint venture company on the lines of cruise missile manufacturer BrahMos will be set up for the purpose. HAL’s contribution will include fuselage composites, flight software, including the mission computer, navigation systems, avionics and cockpit displays and counter-measure dispensing systems.

Unlike the Russian version, the Indian aircraft will be a two-seater aircraft, which will involve limited re-designing of the fuselage, wings and control surfaces that will be undertaken by HAL. The project had kicked off in 2007.

Amphibious vessels to strengthen Indian navy
The Union government has cleared the Rs 2,176-crore acquisition of eight specialised vessels or LCUs (landing craft utility), capable of “hard beaching” on enemy shores, to boost the countryís amphibious warfare and island protection capabilities. The LCUs will help in swiftly transporting thousands of troops, heavy weapon systems and infantry combat vehicles over long distances to take the battle right to the enemy mainland.

The vessels will be built by the Kolkata-based Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Ltd.

The LCUs are likely to be based at India’s first and only regional “theatre command”, the strategically-located Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC). With additional airstrips, OTR (operational turn around) bases and jetties, ANC is slowly being transformed into a major amphibious warfare hub. A strong military presence in the 572-island archipelago is considered imperative to counter China’s strategic moves in the Indian Ocean, as well as ensure security of the sea lanes converging towards Malacca Strait.

N-ENERGY
BARC develops spent fuel automation system
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has designed and developed the first of its kind advanced automation system for transferring spent fuel bundles of pressurised heavy water reactors for nuclear reprocessing plants. Introduction of this automation system for reprocessing plant is aimed at transferring the fuel bundles directly from fuel handling area (FHA) of storage pool to the dissolver cell in an automated way, without the necessity of using charging cask. This contributes in eliminating dependency on skilled manpower and thus reduction of man-rem (radiation dose) consumption by workers.

The system design is such that it can easily be adopted to handle fuel from 220 MW PHWR as well as from 550 MW/700 MW with minimum changes. Provision has also been kept for manual changing of spent fuel in case of non-availability of automation system.

The spent fuel bundles from nuclear power reactors are stored under water at reactor site. After allowing it to cool down for a given period, the bundles from the reactor site are transferred to underwater storage facility at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant site.

PERSONS
Pataudi, Mansur Ali Khan
Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi, India’s youngest-ever Test captain, also known in the cricketing fraternity as “Tiger” Pataudi, died on September 22, 2011.

Born on January 5, 1941 in Bhopal, the right-handed batsman made his debut for India at the age of 21 in a drawn match against England here in 1961. In a career spanning almost two decades, he played a total of 46 Test matches.

In 1964, Pataudi was bestowed the Arjuna Award before being honoured with a Padma Shri in 1967. A star not just on field but off it too, Pataudi married the then reigning queen of Indian cinema Sharmila Tagore in 1969 and the glamorous couple had three children – Saif Ali Khan, Soha Ali Khan and Saba Ali Khan.

PROJECTS
NTPC to set up first overseas power plant in Sri Lanka
State-run power producer NTPC will set up a 500-Mw coal-based power plant in Sri Lanka by 2016, which will mark its foray into the overseas market. The unit will come up at Sampur in Trincomalee at an estimated cost of Rs 3,150 crore.

A joint venture agreement to this effect was signed between NTPC and the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB). The Sri Lankan government will give land for the project on a long-term lease. Coal for the project will be imported and supplied by Lanka Coal Company (LCC) and the power generated will be supplied to the CEB.

RESEARCH
Scientists find way to “disarm” AIDS virus
Scientists have found a way to prevent HIV from damaging the immune system and say their discovery may offer a new approach to developing a vaccine against AIDS.

Researchers from the United States and Europe, working in laboratories on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), found it is unable to damage the immune system if cholesterol is removed from the membrane of the virus.

HIV takes its membrane from the cell that it infects, the researchers explained in their study. This membrane contains cholesterol, which helps keep it fluid and enables it to interact with particular types of cell.

Normally, a subset of immune cells, called plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), recognise HIV quickly and react by producing signalling molecules called interferons. These signals activate various processes which are initially helpful, but which damage the immune system if switched on for too long.

Scientists have now found that if cholesterol is removed from HIV’s envelope, it can no longer activate pDCs. As a result, T cells, which orchestrate the adaptive response, can fight the virus more effectively.

The team now plans to investigate how to use this way of inactivating the virus and possibly develop it into a vaccine.

Usually when a person becomes infected with HIV, the body’s innate immune response puts up an immediate defence. But some researchers believe HIV causes the innate immune system to overreact. This weakens the immune system’s next line of defence, known as the adaptive immune response.

AIDS kills around 1.8 million people a year worldwide. An estimated 2.6 million people caught HIV in 2009, and 33.3 million people are living with the virus.

Neutrinos make light of Einstein’s theory of relativity
Albert Einstein’s 1905 theory of relativity is one of the most fundamental pillars of physics — but now scientists say his conclusion that nothing can travel faster than light could be proved wrong.

Scientists at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, or CERN, the world’s largest physics laboratory say they have recorded sub-atomic particles, known as neutrinos, travelling faster than the speed of light.

CERN says as part of its “OPERA” experiment, a neutrino beam fired from a particle accelerator near Geneva to a lab 730 km away in Italy travelled 60 nanoseconds faster than the speed of light. It revealed that neutrinos travel at a velocity of 20 parts per million above the speed of light.

Scientists calculated the margin of error at just 10 nanoseconds, making the difference statistically significant.

If the findings are correct, it would force a major rethink of the fundamental laws of nature, including how the universe works.

Einstein’s theory states that energy is equal to mass multiplied by the speed of light squared, so firing an object faster than that would require an infinite amount of energy.

World’s Smallest Electric Motor
Chemists at Tufts University’s School of Arts and Sciences have developed the world’s first single molecule electric motor, a development that may create a new class of devices applicable to sectors like medicine to engineering.

In a report published in Nature Nanotechnology, the Tufts team reported an electric motor only one nanometer across — groundbreaking work, considering the current world record is a 200-nanometer motor. A single strand of human hair is about 60,000 nanometers wide.

E Charles H Sykes, associate professor of chemistry at Tufts and senior author of the paper, says, “There has been significant progress in the construction of molecular motors powered by light, and by chemical reactions. But this is the first time electrically-driven molecular motors have been demonstrated, despite a few theoretical proposals — we have been able to show one can provide electricity to a single molecule and get it to do something that is not just random.”

Sykes and his colleagues were able to control a molecular motor with electricity by using a state-of-the-art, low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (LT-STM), one of about only 100 in the United States. The LT-STM uses electrons instead of light to ‘see’ molecules. The team used the metal tip on the microscope to provide an electrical charge to a butyl methyl sulfide molecule placed on a conductive copper surface. This sulfur-containing molecule had carbon and hydrogen atoms radiating to form what looked like two arms, with four carbons on one side and one on the other. These carbon chains were free to rotate around the sulfur-copper bond.

While there are foreseeable practical applications of this electric motor, breakthroughs would need to be made in the temperatures at which electric molecular motors operate. The motor spins much faster at higher temperatures, making it difficult to measure and control the rotation of the motor.

SPACE RESEARCH
Looking inside the moon
More than 100 spacecraft have been to the moon, including six with U.S. astronauts, but one key piece of information about Earth’s natural satellite is still missing –nwhat’s inside.

Learning about the interior of the moon is the primary goal of a new NASA mission called Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, which was launched on September 8, 2011.

Overall, the moon has about one-sixth the gravity of Earth, but it is not evenly distributed. On the moon, a mountain actually might be a molehill, gravitationally speaking.

Likewise, gravity maps of lunar flat lands show unexplained pockets of extra heft, an indication of subterranean deposits or structures. Learning the interior structure of the moon is considered critical to piecing together the story about what happened to the moon since its formation some 4.5 billion years ago.

Scientists believe the moon’s building blocks were large chunks of debris jettisoned from Earth after a collision with an object as big as Mars. In addition to un-ravelling the moon’s history, GRAIL scientists expect to extrapolate their findings to other rocky bodies, both in our solar system and eventually to those beyond.

The two spacecraft will take a long, slow journey to the moon, arriving on December 31 and January 1. After a few months to manoeuvre into the proper orbit, the pair will spend 82 days flying over the lunar poles, linked by radio waves.

When one spacecraft flies over a region of higher gravity, it will speed up, momentarily changing the distance between itself and its sibling probe. Less dense regions likewise will affect the satellites’ positions. Using the radio waves as a ruler, changes as tiny as a micron — the width of a red blood cell — can be detected.

With gravity maps in hand, scientists can then use computer models and data from other lunar missions to determine whether the moon’s core is solid, liquid or a combination of the two, and what elements it contains.

MISCELLANEOUS
Asterix creator retires after 52 years
Albert Uderzo, co-creator of one of France’s greatest comic book heroes, Asterix the Gaul, has decided to  hang up his pen at the age of 84. The Italian-born artist, who dreamt up the indomitable warrior with his scriptwriter friend Rene Goscinny in 1959, said he was “a bit tired” after 52 years of drawing and that it was time to hand over his creation to younger talent.

The announcement came on the day publishing house Hachette celebrated the sale of 350 million Asterix books around the world, making the diminutive hero one of France’s biggest-selling exports.

Asterix and his jovial sidekick Obelix first appeared in print in October 1959, and their adventures fighting the Roman invaders have since been translated into over 100 languages.

World August, 2011

  • Nepal Prime Minister Khanal inducted new ministers in his cabinet.
  • US President Obama signed debt deal into law.
  • Ousted Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak went on trial in Cairo.
  • Former Japan International defender Naoki Matsuda died.
  • NASA launched Jupiter probe ‘Juno’.
  • Yingluck Shinawatra sworn as first female Thai Prime Minister.
  • US lost AAA credit rating for the first time since 1941.
  • Nepal banned smoking in public places.
  • Lobsang Sangay sworn in as new PM of Tibetan government in exile.
  • 22 killed as Syria launched new raids.
  • China began sea trial of first aircraft carrier.
  • China decided to reduce speed of bullet trains.
  • China put into orbit Pakistan’s first communications satellite.
  • Nepal Prime Minister resigned under pressure.
  • Nepal President Yadav set August 21 as deadline for consensus on PM.
  • High level Chinese delegation arrived in Nepal.
  • Yemen President Saleh vowed to return home from South Arabia.
  • 68 killed in Iraq blast.
  • World leaders called on Syrian President Assad to step down.
  • 53 killed in Pakistan Blast.
  • Egypt Israel ties plunged to a new low.
  • Brazil won FIFA U-20 World Cup.
  • Rebels captured Tripoli heralding end of Gaddafi rule.
  • Libyan rebels seized Gaddafi’s compound Tripoli.
  • Russian cargo spacecraft for ISS crashed into earth.
  • NATO joined search for fallen Libyan leader Gaddafi.
  • Japanese Premier Naoto Kan resigned.
  • Singapore voted for new President.
  • Baburam Bhattarai elected Nepal’s 35th PM.
  • Tony Tan elected Singapore President.
  • Lady Gaga bagged 1st 2011 MTV Video Music Awards honour for ‘Born This Way’.
  • China has approved plans to setup first Tibetian bank.
  • Dilshan has been named as Sri Lanka’s captain for upcoming Australian series.
  • Sudan has launched its new currency.
  • Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner becomes the first woman to conquer 14. 8000 metre summit (K2) without artificial oxygen.
  • Tim Cook has been named as CEO of Apple post Steve Jobs resignation.
  • Anna University recently signed pact with university of Sydney.
  • Hitachi and Mitsubishi two industries of Japan are set to merge.
  • NASA found the first evidence of flowing water recently on Mars planet.
  • Jenson Button won the Hungarian Grand Prix 2011.
  • England won the 2000th Test cricket held at Lords Cricket Ground.

India August 2011

  • Month-long monsoon session of Parliament began.
  • Centre agreed to a Rs.19000 Crore ballout package for West Bengal.
  • The first-ever Kashmir Premier League (KPL) T-20 Chinar Cup-2011 ended.
  • DV Sadananda Gowda sworn in as Chief Minister of Karnataka.
  • SC partially lifted mining ban in Bellary.
  • Indian archers won three silver medals in the Archery World Cup in Ogden.
  • N-E body sought national drink status for tea.
  • Indian wrestlers won 49 medals in the commonwealth wrestling championship in Melbourne.
  • Aditya Mehta clinched the 78th National Snooker Championship title.
  • Former TN Governor and political analyst PC Alexander died.
  • Lok Sabha passed SBI Subsidiary Banks Bill.
  • BrahMos Varian Block III supersonic cruise missile test-fired successfully.
  • Indian cricket team lost the No. 1 Test rank to England.
  • Veteran actor Shammi Kapoor died.
  • PM Manmohan Singh addressed the nation on 65th Independence Day.
  • New Indian Chief suspended over credit over for Paramount Air.
  • N A K Browne has been takes charge as the 23rd chief of the Indian Air Force.
  • Coal India Ltd. Dethroned Reliance Industries Ltd. as most valued firm.
  • National Sports awards announced.
  • All-party meeting in West Bengal decided to rename the state as Paschimbanga.
  • Stealth frigate Statpura commissioned into navy.
  • Historian and Indologist Ram Sharan Sharma died.
  • Leader Paes and Mahesh Bhupati won the doubles title at Cincinnati tennis match.
  • Government and Team Anna held talks to reach truce.
  • Haryana lifted ceiling on non-farm land.
  • Baichung Bhutia brought down the curtain on his international career.
  • Fast attack warship INS Karuva inducted into Navy.
  • K. Rosaiah appointed new Tamil Nadu Governor.
  • Birla Corp suspended mining in Rajasthan.
  • Indian Finished 8th in the WSF men’s world team squash championship held in Germany.
  • Juvenile Justice (amendment) Bill introduced in Lok Sabha.
  • Sucheta 33 year old women from Pune became first Indian woman to cross Gobi desert.
  • Ronjan Sodhi has been ranked world No.1 in double trap shooting as per the ISSF world rankings.
  • HDFC bank has launched a service of accepting income tax payment through ATMs.
  • Gagan Narang Ace Indian shooter is set to get Khel Ratna.
  • Prahaar missile was recently test-fired successfully at Chandipur, Orrisa.
  • Rahul Dravid became 2nd highest run scorer in Test cricket surpassing Ricky Ponting’s record.
  • Former Supreme Court Judge Shivraj V.Patil has been appointed as Lokayukta of Karnataka to succeed Santosh Hegde.
  • Shammi Kapoor bollywood actor passed away recently.